FAA Releases Privacy Plan for ADS-B and New Rule Allows Military Aircraft to Turn Off ADS-B Transmissions

For discussion about civilian aircraft radio communications and live flight tracking. Many topics can be found here including ADS-B, Mode S logs and aircraft lists.
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FAA Releases Privacy Plan for ADS-B and New Rule Allows Military Aircraft to Turn Off ADS-B Transmissions

Post by Brian »

New Rule Allows Military Aircraft to Turn Off ADS-B Transmissions
July 23, 2019
https://www.rotorandwing.com/2019/07/23 ... off-ads-b/

https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR- ... -15248.pdf

https://www.federalregister.gov/documen ... quirements

Under the FAA's new ADS-B off rule, defense aircraft such as the EA-18G Growler, can obtain authorization to turn their ADS-B Out transmissions off.
https://www.defensedaily.com/faa-allows ... /pentagon/

https://aviationweek.com/defense-space/ ... ementation

U.S. federal, state and local government aircraft performing sensitive operations are now permitted to fly with their installed automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) position reporting electronics turned off, according to a new rule published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Thursday.

Under the new rule, aircraft conducting operations related to homeland security, law enforcement, national defense and intelligence that could be compromised by transmitting real-time aircraft position information are permitted to disable ADS-B transmissions after obtaining proper authorization from the FAA.

Changes to the FAA’s ADS-B Out airspace requirement come following several years of interagency meetings held between the FAA, Defense Department (DOD), Department of Homeland Security, Federal Bureau of Investigation and other intelligence and law enforcement agencies. Leadership from those agencies expressed strong concerns about adversaries being able to easily gain public access to real time ADS-B flight identification and positional data. A provision in the fiscal 2019 National Defense Authorization Act also prevents the FAA from mandating ADS-B installations on certain DOD aircraft.

Security concerns associated with ADS-B Out are not solely caused by the abilities of the ADS-B transponders, but instead by the proliferation and wide availability of new inexpensive ADS-B ground receivers and applications than can track ADS-B equipped flights for 100 to 300 miles. In comparison to older Mode S transponders, ADS-B provides more detailed information including aircraft registration number, longitude, latitude, dimensions and velocity.

According to a description of the new policy, several alternatives to the new rule were considered that the FAA ultimately deemed too time consuming to meet the Jan. 1, 2020 ADS-B Out mandate, or required costly investments by DOD and other agencies. One alternative was to mask the identity of ADS-B Out equipped DOD aircraft, which defense officials determined still would not meet their needs because third parties would still be able to identify the aircraft location, velocity and altitude.

Other alternatives included the use of encryption for sensitive aircraft or a new exemption process where agencies could petition the FAA for the authority to turn ADS-B Out transmissions off. However, since no encryption solution for ADS-B currently exists and an exemption process requires agencies to submit their requests at least 120 days in advance of the exemption need, these alternatives were also decided against.

Through the rule change, the FAA has tasked its system operations security division with accepting requests from each individual agency requiring the authority to turn their ADS-B Out transmissions off. A major goal for the FAA is to avoid coordinating ADS-B Out transmission cancellations on a per-mission basis. Instead, the systems operations division will review requests submitted by the highest possibly agency organization level.

“Once an agency has determined the broad mission sets that should be excepted from the transmitting requirement using its internal policies and assessment criteria, it must contact the FAA for authorization to conduct these broad mission sets without transmitting,” FAA officials wrote in the new policy statement.

While the new rule is effective immediately, the FAA is allowing comments to be submitted about the rule change through September 16, 2019.
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Re: New Rule Allows Military Aircraft to Turn Off ADS-B Transmissions

Post by Brian »

Good article to read about Mode 5.

Raytheon Preparing Military Aircraft for IFF Mode 5 Mandate by Next June, 2020
https://www.aviationtoday.com/2019/09/1 ... next-june/

L2 Aviation to Install ADS-B Upgrades for U.S. Air Force KC-10 Tankers
Collins Aerospace has awarded L2 Aviation a subcontract for installations of Mode 5 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) upgrades for the U.S. Air Force's fleet of 58 Boeing KC-10 Extender tanker aircraft, the Texas-based avionics engineering and modifications company said on Nov. 12.

Mode 5 is an enhancement to legacy Mode 4 Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) which has been in use since the mid-1950s for military identification. The National Security Agency and Joint Chiefs of Staff require Mode 5 to replace all Mode 4 configurations by June 30 next year.

https://www.aviationtoday.com/2019/11/1 ... 0-tankers/
Posts: 1376
Joined: Thu Oct 21, 2004 8:54 pm

FAA Releases Privacy Plan for ADS-B - Protect the privacy of operators

Post by Brian »

FAA Releases Privacy Plan for ADS-B

November 4, 2019

The FAA is putting one of the final pieces in place for the transition to the January 1 ADS-B deadline, releasing a plan to protect the privacy of operators from real-time flight-tracking services.

Agency officials announced the flight-tracking opt-out plan at NBAA's recent Flight Planners Summit held in conjunction with the association's annual convention in Las Vegas. Additionally, the officials said they would establish new data-sharing limits for air traffic tracking service providers if operators want to opt out of having their flight information broadcast over the internet. Those limits are expected to go in effect by year-end, NBAA said.

The Privacy ICAO Address (PIA) Program will be implemented in phases. Under the first phase, to be in place by January 1, the FAA will set up a portal to accept requests from operators seeking to keep their real-time ADS-B position and identification information private. Those operators will receive an alternative, temporary ICAO aircraft address that is not linked with their FAA registration information. To qualify, the aircraft must be U.S-registered, 1090-MHz ADS-B equipped, and fly in U.S. airspace.

Under Phase 2, the FAA will transition the PIA program to a third-party service provider. That move is anticipated in mid-2020.

NBAA, which has long sought protections for operators from the publicly available information that comes with ADS-B, welcomed the move. "We're pleased the FAA has responded positively to ADS-B privacy concerns of operators, which NBAA has raised in numerous government/industry forums, including with the NextGen Advisory Committee," said NBAA president and CEO Ed Bolen. "Until now, the lack of a privacy solution has been a disincentive for some operators to equip with ADS-B. No one should have to surrender their privacy and security just because they board an airplane."
https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news ... plan-ads-b
https://www.aviationpros.com/aircraft/b ... y-security
https://dommagazine.com/nbaa-commends-f ... y-security
https://www.avweb.com/aviation-news/faa ... a-privacy/
http://mt-milcom.blogspot.com/2019/11/f ... ads-b.html

NBAA Commends FAA for New Measures to Preserve Aviation Privacy, Security
https://nbaa.org/2019-press-releases/nb ... -security/

US Moving to Continue Aviation Anonymity Option; Mostly
https://eyeonglobaltransparency.net/201 ... on-mostly/

FAA has initiated the Privacy ICAO Address (PIA)

Only U.S. registered aircraft can be assigned a privacy ICAO aircraft address. No operator can use a privacy ICAO aircraft address for a U.S.-registered aircraft unless that operator is authorized to use a third-party flight identification for that same aircraft. No unique privacy ICAO address will be assigned to more than one U.S.-registered aircraft at any given time. Once approved, the operator will be assigned a privacy ICAO address.

The operator will be required to notify the FAA when their avionics have been loaded with the assigned temporary ICAO 24-bit aircraft address. Owners and operators must verify that the ICAO 24-bit aircraft address (Mode S code) broadcast by their ADS-B equipment matches the assigned privacy ICAO address for their aircraft.

Intended for operators who seek anonymity such that their aircraft movements and identity cannot be easily traced or seen by privately owned sensors that monitor the 1090 MHz frequency. FAA estimates up to 15,000 respondents.

On occasion. An operator can change privacy ICAO aircraft addresses, but no more often than once every 30 days.
https://www.federalregister.gov/documen ... pproval-of

What FAA’s New ADS-B Privacy Policy Means for Business Aviation Operators
November 8, 2019
https://www.aviationtoday.com/2019/11/0 ... operators/

Comments on these pages.....
https://www.pilotsofamerica.com/communi ... ry.122514/
https://www.pilotsofamerica.com/communi ... ng.122509/
https://generalaviationnews.com/2019/11 ... mandatory/

The PIA program is limited to domestic operations because other ICAO member states do not currently offer this capability.
Aircraft equipped with Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) ADS-B avionics, including dual 1090/UAT-equipped aircraft, cannot participate in the PIA program, although they are able to continue using the UAT’s anonymous mode if they are not on an IFR flight plan or receiving ATC services.

ADS-B changing designated call signs
ADS-B is driving ATC system changes that will affect all volunteer pilots using FAA-authorized call signs, including "CMF" for compassion and "ARF" for animal rescue flights. Beginning December 15, pilots must stop using the current method of filing—for example, CMF combined with the last three digits of the aircraft registration number. Instead, the pilot must contact his or her volunteer flying organization(s) and be issued a unique call sign that’s assigned to the pilot, and not the aircraft.

The Air Care Alliance will serve as administrator of the CMF call sign, and will assign call signs to pilots flying for groups that have completed required paperwork.
The group plans to open an online registration portal around December 8

Pilots’ continued use of the old methodology after December 15 could result in FAA violations, as well as loss of the pilot’s authorization to use the compassion call sign, the Air Care Alliance said in an email to pilots.

https://www.aopa.org/news-and-media/all ... -to-1090es

Tell your congressman to make registration data private
with Comments....
https://www.pilotsofamerica.com/communi ... te.120277/


FlightAware Privacy ICAO Address (PIA)

Protect Your Privacy with the FltPlan® Dot Com (DCM) Call Sign and a
Private ICAO Address
http://imageserver.fltplan.com/FltBrief ... ssue1.html
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Joined: Thu Oct 21, 2004 8:54 pm

DEFCON talk about the FAA's Privacy ICAO Address (PIA) system and some potential de-anonymizing attacks

Post by Brian »

DEFCON talk about the FAA's Privacy ICAO Address (PIA) system and some potential de-anonymizing attacks.

DEF CON 28 Aerospace Village: Breakdown of the FAA's Privacy ICAO Address...

YouTube Video - https://youtu.be/6-8z0z1swmE


The FAA launched the Privacy ICAO Address (PIA) program in January 2020 to address privacy concerns in General Aviation in the United States. This talk will present an analysis on the privacy performance of this program in its current state and our predictions for the future. We will demonstrate that it is possible to identify aircraft despite being enrolled in the program, using ADS-B data from crowdsourced networks. The privacy loss of participating aircraft over time is quantified through a purpose-built privacy simulator, showing that tracking is possible, even with a much greater participation in the program in the future. To address these issues, we will present two solutions that could significantly improve the privacy of the PIA program going forward.

N163LY - A0FDE4
https://registry.faa.gov/aircraftinquir ... txt=N163LY

No registration information for N163LY at this time

N163LY has flown over my house a couple times in the past few days. It looks like it has a temporary registration to the FAA's Surveillance and Broadcast Services (SBS) Program Office.
https://twitter.com/lemonodor/status/12 ... 1174792192
Posts: 1376
Joined: Thu Oct 21, 2004 8:54 pm

FAA Privacy ICAO Program Gains Foothold, But Extent Limited Thus Far

Post by Brian »

FAA Privacy ICAO Program Gains Foothold, But Extent Limited Thus Far
November 4, 2020

Of the 74 PIA users, one operator has registered three aircraft, while three operators have registered two aircraft each, and 67 operators have a single aircraft registered, the FAA said

The agency declined to release a list of the 74 users

Chantilly Air is looking forward to other privacy options that may prove more time and cost-effective than PIA.

The National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) has been discussing with the FAA a possible expansion of PIA to international airspace between the continental United States and Hawaii, Mexico, and Canada.

“Initial conversations between the FAA and NavCanada have been favorable,” the FAA said. “The FAA plans to jointly submit a working paper to the ICAO Aeronautical Surveillance Working Group. If the paper is accepted, we will begin drafting regional supplementary procedures, followed by a proposal for amendment to ICAO Doc 7030.”

https://www.aviationtoday.com/2020/11/0 ... -thus-far/
Posts: 1376
Joined: Thu Oct 21, 2004 8:54 pm

FAA’s Use Of ADS-B Against Pilots Is GA’s Next Big Problem

Post by Brian »

Going Direct: FAA’s Use Of ADS-B Against Pilots Is GA’s Next Big Problem
Since the beginning, pilots have expressed concern over how the FAA would use the data against pilots. And guess what? It’s happening.
https://www.planeandpilotmag.com/news/o ... g-problem/


The four flight-planning services which the FAA accepts for PIA are:
• FlightPln (owned by Garmin)
• ForeFlight (owned by Boeing)
• FlightAware
• ARINCDirect (owned by Collins Aerospace).
FlightPln’s three-letter callsign prefix is DCM, ForeFlight’s prefix is FFL, FlightAware’s callsign prefix is FWR and ARINCDirect’s prefix is XAA. According to Renneissen, ARINCDirect generates random XAA callsigns (each including up to four digits) for every single-sector PIA flight and a different callsign for every leg of a multisector flight. This makes the callsign-allocating process simpler and more efficient for ARINCDirect.
The company would quickly run out of callsigns if it allocated each one permanently to a given aircraft, because only 9,999 callsigns are available to ARINC, says Renneissen. Importantly, changing the callsign for every sector also makes it highly difficult for any third-party to follow a given aircraft’s movements throughout the day.
https://www.avbuyer.com/articles/flight ... usa-113205

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